Wednesday, October 17, 2012
Yesterday I posted a translation of Johann Gerhard on Romans 3 and on Romans 4. Here's a translation of his interpretation of Romans 5:18.
(Translation copyright 2012 by Paul A. Rydecki. All emphasis is in the original.)
Adnotationes ad priora capita Epistolae D. Pauli ad Romanos (1644)
Romans 5:18 (page 177)
Ἄρα οὖν ὡς διʼ ἑνὸς παραπτώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς κατάκριμα, οὕτω καὶ διʼ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς·
This verse is a summary of everything that came before. That I may briefly summarize, he says, what I have said thus far concerning the comparison between Adam and Christ, the matter boils down to this: Just as the guilt that was contracted from one transgression of Adam sentences all men to death, so the righteousness of Christ that is imputed to believers by faith justifies them, so that they are restored again to participate in the eternal life that had been lost in Adam and through Adam.
ὡς διʼ ἑνὸς παραπτώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς κατάκριμα. Just as through one offense (scil. guilt came) upon all men for condemnation. The Syrian version translated it: Just as through sin condemnation was to all the children of men. The Apostle contrasts the transgression (τὸ παράπτωμα) of Adam and the righteousness (τὸ δικαίωμα) of Christ. Likewise, [he contrasts] the condemnation (κατάκριμα) that spread to all from Adam’s transgression and the justification of life (δικαίωσιν ζωῆς) that deduces its origin from the righteousness of Christ (ex Christi δικαιώματι) and flows down to all.
οὕτω καὶ διʼ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς. So through one Man’s righteousness (scil. the benefit overflowed) to all men for justification of life, that is, salvific justification. For it is called “justification of life” because the end and consequence of it is life and eternal salvation.
[You ask,] But how did the righteousness of Christ overflow to all men for justification, since not all men are justified? We reply: The Apostle is not speaking about the application of the benefit, but of the acquisition of the benefit. If we wish to descend to the application, that universality must be restricted to those who are grafted into Christ by faith. For as the unrighteousness of Adam is communicated to all those who are descended from him by carnal generation, so the righteousness of Christ is communicated to all those who are grafted into Him through faith and spiritual regeneration.
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